“Dievs dāvājis cilvēkam mūziku, kas palīdz mums ar Viņu un savā starpā satikties…” (J.Kundziņš)

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Somijas Evaņģēliski luteriskās Baznīcas mācītājs, no 1981.g.

Helsinku Universitātes Teoloģijas fakultātes baznīcas vēstures profesors, no 2005.g.

teoloģijas un filozofijas zinātņu doktors,

Somijas Zinātņu akadēmijas pētnieks

Nurmes Vēsturiski Teoloģiska konferences dalībnieks

NURME - 2014

„Evaņģēliski luteriskā Baznīca. Kurzeme. Latvija. Pasaule. – laikmetu griežos.“

“From Riga to Minneapolis, USA”

Edgars  Ķiploks (1907–1999) a culturally influential researcher of Latvian Church History 

“No Rīgas līdz Mineapolei, ASV”

Edgars Ķiploks (1907 - 1999) - nozīmīgs Latvijas Baznīcas vēstures pētnieks

TĒZES (biogrāfija un lekcija – zemāk)

Edgars Ķiploks, (1907-1999) Lic.theol., Dr.hc in history, was one of the most well-kown Latvian church-historians of the 20th century. The multiple traces of his work and life are evident both in Latvia and among the Latvian exile communities around the world.

Professor Ludvigs Adamovičs (1884-1942), the creator of national Latvian church history, invited him to work as the Assistent in church history and the librarian in the theological faculty of the University of Latvia in 1932. He was a pupil of  Adamovičs.

Edgars Ķiploks was very active writer and pubsher as well. He began his literary activity in the turn of 1920-30´s and he continued until 1990´s.

Ķiploks  created a strong foundation for the research into Latvian Church History with his post-WW II work, not only by researching and writing extensively but also by collecting an large amount of data.

The greatly significant fruit of his compilation was to establish the Archive of Latvian Church History (ALCH).  It was founded in the summer of 1960. The rules of the Archive were approved by the Latvian American refugee parishes in 1978, and Ķiploks was nominated as the Archivist. In the early 1990´s this archives moved to Chicago.

Typically, Ķiploks' research focused on the profuse amount data that he had gathered. This great amount of sources resulted, quite naturally, in works of compilations and lists, instead of a more critical analysis of the data.

ProfessorDr.Theol_Dr.Phil_Jouko_TALONENProfessor of Church History, from 2005

Faculty of Helsinki

University of Helsinki

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Born in 1953 in Vähäkyrö. Nowadays lives in Vantaa, near Helsinki.


Research fields

Church and Politics in 20th century

European revival movements, especially Laestadianism

Baltic Church history, especially Latvian modern church history

Research history in Baltic Church history

I visited Soviet Estonia for the first time in autumn 1978. Research Viron lestadiolaisuus 1886–1953 (Laestadianism in Estonia in 1886–1953) was published in 1989 (Studia Historica Septentrionalia 16. Jyväskylä 1989). After 1984 my main interest has been Latvian Church History, and during 1991–1992 I studied Latvian language in the University of Helsinki.

During the last years I have continued to research the Estonian Lutheran awakening movements, among others Herrnhutism.

My Ph.D. thesis in General History Church under the Pressure of Stalinism. The status and development of Soviet-Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in 1944–1950 (Studia Historica Septentrionalia. Rovaniemi 1997) was published in 1997. It dealt with the role of the Lutheran Church of Latvia in Soviet Latvia in the grip of Stalinism after WWII. The dissertation has been translated into Latvian and published in 2009 in Riga.

Since 1995 I have studied the history of Latvian theology during the World Wars. It has previously been studied only to a minor extent, thus my work has been kind of pioneering. The most important previous work on the subject is Ludvigs Adamovičs´ History of the Theological Faculty of the Latvian University (Latvijas universitātes teoloģijas fakultāte 1919–1939), but there also exist some articles written by Edgars Ķiploks and Nikandrs Gills, among others.

The bibliography of Professor Ludvigs Adamovičs, based on Aija Freimane´s Master’s Thesis, was published in 2005 (Publications of Finnish Society of Church History, no. 196). I continue this research by studying the role of Professor Ludvigs Adamovičs as a creator of Latvian national church history.

My research Latvian kansallisen teologian synty. Kiista teologian suunnasta ja pappiskoulutuksesta Latvian evankelis-luterilaisessa kirkossa 1918–1934 (The Birth of Latvian national theology. The battle for the direction of theology and the Education of clergy in the Latvian Evangelical-Lutheran Church in 1918–1934) was published in 2008.

My first visit to Soviet Latvia took place in May 1984. Since then I have visited Latvia numerous times and done research in the country for approximately three years in total. I have also delivered lectures in the Latvian University and in the School of St. Gregor in Saldus (the School of Latvian Ev.Luth. Church). I have also compiled material concerned Latvian church history from various parts of the world during shorter research periods, for example in the USA, Great Britain, Australia, Russia, Germany, Switzerland, and Sweden.

The Lithuanian church history has been among my interests as well. Generally, this research interest has been in "the secondary level" in my research work. I have some contacts especially to Lithuanian Protestant theologians.

I have been Cordinator of the INBCH (International network of Baltic church-historians)

Konference Nurme - 2014  9.VIII

Profesors Jouko Talonen

(Helsinku universitate, Somija)

“From Riga to Minneapolis, USA”

Edgars  Ķiploks (1907–1999) a culturally influential researcher of Latvian Church History

Edgars Ķiploks, (1907-1999) Lic.theol.,PhD h.c. in history, was one of the most well-kown Latvian theologians of the 20th century. The multiple traces of his work and life are evident

both in Latvia and among the Latvian exile communities around the world. Ķiploks  created a strong foundation for the research into Latvian Church History with his post-WW II work, not only by researching and writing extensively but also by collecting an large amount of data. While Ķiploks was actively involved in creating the 'memory' of Latvian Church History in the USA, the Communist regime in Riga was simultaneously  tearing down all forms of academic theology in Latvia.

Edgars Ķiploks was born in Riga on April 3, 1907. His first choice of an academic field was economics, but theology gained the upper hand in 1928. Ķiploks obtained his MA in theology (corresponding to a Licentiate's degree) in 1937, and later that year he was ordained by Ādolfs Kundziņš, the Regional Dean of Riga. Ķiploks' academic talents and the high level of energy he devoted to research were apparent early on. Thus, he was probably the only student of theology in the University of Riga in the 1930's to subscribe to the well-known journal RGG. Ķiploks' MA paper in church history dealing with the development of Latvian Cathechisms was awarded with an honorary prize in 1930. Professor Ludvigs Adamovičs (1884-1942) invited him to work as the Assistent in church history and the librarian in the theological faculty in 1932.

In the 1930's, Ķiploks was actively involved in the discussion in several newspapers, as well as in Svētdienas Rīts, the paper of the Lutheran Church. He was particularly active in writing to the Universitās, the academic paper, and he worked in the paper as an editor in 1930-1934 and as the editor-in-chief in 1934-1935. Ķiploks was also in charge of the publishing of course books, which had been instigated by the Studentu Padome, the council of Latvian university students. The guidebook of university studies (Vadoni LU studentiem) was edited by him since 1932. Later, from 1936 onwards, this was called the Calendar of Students (Studentu kalendārs). Since the age of 19, as a student of economics, Ķiploks had been involved in the Latvia Fraternity, and this involvement of his continued into old age. His patriotic and nationalistic ideals were to govern his entire life and work.

The Soviet occupation and the Stalinist terror changed the lives of many Latvians in 1940-1941. Ķiploks' colleague, Professor Ludvigs  Adamovičs, together with his family, was imprisoned on June 13-14, 1941, during the Night of Terror, and was forced to face deportation inside the Soviet Union. Professor Adamovičs received a death sentence for his 'crimes' against the Soviet regime and he was shot in Solikamsk in the summer of 1942.

One of the most prominent figures in independent Latvia, Professor Ludvigs Adamovičs made a two decade long contribution that extended from theology to the social and cultural life of his country. During his career between the two world wars, Adamovičs created a national intepretation of Latvian church history.

It is difficult to estimate the effect that Professor Adamovičs and his tragic fate had on the later vision of Ķiploks, as a young researcher of church history. It is possible that the tragedy contributed to the level of energy with which he fought for Latvians as a nation and for her church in the decades of his exile. It any case, it must be said that ever since Professor Adamovičs was deported, Ķiploks was the most well-known academic researcher of church history in Latvia. When the German occupation reinstated the theological  faculty as a 'university college' in 1943-44, Ķiploks was, self-evidently, appointed as the lecturer of church history. During the German occupation, Ķiploks  was also employed as the managing director by Latvju Grāmata, a publishing house, and as the editor-in-chief of the journal Latvju Grāmatnieks.

When the Soviet Red Army was approaching Latvia in the autumn of 1944, Ķiploks joined the enormous wave of refugees fleeing to Germany. Hitler's Germany bombed by the Allied offered difficult and almost chaotic circumstances for the Baltic immigrants in the refugee camps. Many Latvian right-wing or Social democrat figures of public life, such as several ministers, were facing two definitely clear options: Siberia or an escape to the West.

Rev Edgars Ķiploks worked at first in Berlin in 1944, organising the work of the Latvian parishes in exile there, and, for a short time, as the secretary of Archbishop Teodors Grünbergs. Later, Ķiploks lived in Augustdorff near Detmold, serving the Latvian refugees as their minister. Since 1948, the Lutheran World Federation was his employer, as he continued his work among the refugees. Ķiploks emigrated to the USA in 1950.

The 1950's was a busy time for Edgars Ķiploks. The Baltic immigrants had arrived in North America nearly empty handed, and sheer hard work and some help from the Americans enabled them to rebuild their lives. Until 1958,  Ķiploks was employed by the American Evangelical Lutheran Church (AELC) as the minister of immigrant Latvian parishes particularly in South and North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming, mostly residing in Sioux Falls, SD, at the time, but moving to Minneapolis in 1954. When the American support for the Latvian parishes ceased in 1958, Ķiploks failed to find a suitable position in an American church, as he did not wish to work in purely American parishes and was not able to find a more suitable position. Ķiploks decided to continue to work among Latvians as before, but now without pay. From the early 1960's till 1978, Ķiploks was employed by the Latvian Jesus Parish in Minneapolis, serving Latvians also in the Prairie States and in Iowa throughout the 1960's.

The exiled Ķiploks cherishing the Latvian cultural heritage

The exiled Latvians began to republish their academic paper Universitās in 1954, and  Ķiploks was one its contributors. While working among Latvians as their minister in South and North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming, Ķiploks also edited their Latvian church paper Avots Prērījā (A Spring at the Prairie) in 1951-1956.

Even during his time in Germany, Ķiploks had been involved in publishing, although the difficult circumstances among the refugees finally made it financially impossible for him to continue the work. His vivid interest in publishing made him an active supporter when the Latvian Christian publishing house called Sējējs (The Seed Thrower) was founded in 1953. Its significance for the Latvian parishes proved to be great, as it published plenty of works of theology, and posthumous works by theologians from the period of Latvian independence, as well as devotional Latvian literature. Mājas Draugs (the Friend of the Home), had previously been published by the council of North-American Lutheran churches, called the American National Council Latvian, but they ended this in 1955.  Since 1956, the exiled Latvians began to publish a paper of their own, Ceļa Biedrs (A Friend for the Journey), and the paper continues to be published even today.

Since the publishing house Sējējs was no longer active after 1977, the Latvian parishes in North America established a publishing firm of their own called Publishing House LELDAA (later LELBA, Latvijas evaņġēliski-luteriski baznīca Amerikā) Apgads. The main office of the firm was located in Minneapolis, and besides working as the editor-in-chief of the firm in 1968-1978, Ķiploks continued to serve as a parish minister, and his  role as the spiritual shepherd was particularly significant within the Latvian community in the Minneapolis region. His far-reaching interest in the development of Latvian Christianity in America was evident all through the 1960's, as well as afterwards. This was clear, for example, from his active involvement, among other things, in the committee that compiled the new Latvian hymnal.

Latvian Christians in exile continued to cherish their Church Calendar (Baznīcas Kalendārs), which began to be regularly published in America from 1949 onwards, and Ķiploks was one of its most active contributors. His writing activity was also directed to hymnology, as he not only wrote hymns but translated them into Latvian as well. His prominent role in the creation of the new hymnal of the Latvians in exile (Dziesmu grāmata) is clear also from the fact that he did research into the history of Latvian hymns, writing short articles and reports about their writers. The 1992 Latvian Lutheran hymnal has 13 hymns that have either been written or translated by Ķiploks.

Ķiploks was also involved in the publishing of the 1974 issue of the Latvian Bible, the first facsimile one. The dating of the first Latvian Bible is still unclear, as the title page of the New Testament has the year 1685, whereas the year printed in the Old Testament is 1689. The printing of the entire Bible was, however, finished as late as in 1691, or in 1692 (or maybe even in 1693). Out of the total 1,500 copies printed at the time, a small number has been preserved by libraries or private individuals in Europe and the USA. The 1974 facsimile reprint consisted of 500 copies, and it was financed by 350 sponsors.

The most prominent deed preserving Latvian culture that Ķiploks was engaged in was, however, that he preserved and developed in exile the tradition of Latvian church history.  In the middle of the 1950's, when the education of ministers began in Riga by the Lutheran Church, hardly any resources could be delegated to the critical research in church history, as the state did not recognize church history as a form of scientific research. Even the ministers with academic talent could spare no time for it as their active involvement in parish work was so much in demand. Consequently, the research in church history in Soviet Latvia and other Baltic countries was focused on such self-evident issues as the 'reactionary role' of the Christian Church in human history, the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, the Crusades, and Galileo Galilei! When a few moments were devoted to church history in Latvia, it was carried out by researchers of history who were, if not 'fighting for atheism', nevertheless either possessed a deep conviction of Marxist philosophy of science, or saw no other option than to align their views according to Marxist principles.

Ķiploks, instead, compiled an extensive collection of data concerned with Latvian church history and recollections. His collections include relevant literature, and with a trained eye in criticism of research, he was able to focus on the important issues in the field. The greatly significant fruit of his compilation was the research archive of Latvian Church History founded in the summer of 1960. The rules of the Archive were approved by the Latvian American refugee parishes in 1978, and Ķiploks was nominated as the Archivist, whereas Professor Pauls Lazda was appointed as his assistant. The Archive was initially situated in Ķiploks' home in Bloomington (MN), but it was moved to the extensive premises of the Latvian Lutheran Zion parish in Chicago (IL) in the early 1990's. The first archivist in Chicago was Ms Anna Treimane, and she was succeeded by Mr Juris Pūliņš who is still in charge.

The material compiled by the exile parishes in North America was also moved to the Archive. The creation of the Archive of Latvian Church History (ALCH), particularly in the circumstances prevailing in the post-WW II conditions in exile, was an enormous cultural effort. The Estonian Lutherans in exile have not, as far as present-day information is accurate, been able to establish an archive of their own.

Ķiploks as a researcher in church history

With Ķiploks in charge, the publishing house Sējējs undertook to publish, besides religious books, a number of outstanding works of church history. As early as in 1947, Dzimtenes baznīcas vēsture (The Church History of the Fatherland) had been re-edited by

Ķiploks in Germany. This classic work by Ludvigs Adamovičs that had previously been published in Latvia in 1927 continues to be, despite its small size, the most eminent general presentation of Latvian church history. In order to advance the path of Adamovičs' works even after his death, Ķiploks continued to publish his writings posthumously in the USA. Thus, Sējējs published, as a separate monograph, Adamovičs' extensive article on Latvian church history called Latvijas baznīcas vēsture in 1961. The article had originally been written by Adamovičs as a contribution to the comprehensive Latvian Encyclopedia that was published in 1934-1935. Latvian exile parishes were able to use these works for their religious teaching of school children and other parishioners, so that the new Latvian generations born and bred in exile could gain an informed perspective of the Old Country.

Adamovičs' extensive doctorate thesis called Vidzemes baznīca un latviešu zemnieks 1710-1743 (The Church in Livonia and the Latvian peasant in 1710-1743) was republished in 1963. It had previously been printed in Riga in 1933, thirty years earlier, after its approval in 1929, and it is a massive work, one of the first accomplishments of research into Latvian national church history. The first subject of the long monograph was the type of administration of the church in Livonia, which, at the time, had followed the rules of the Lutheran Church in Sweden, as the region has been under Swedish rule. He also delved into the situation in Livonia after the Great Northern War in 1700-1710, depicting the state of the area that had suffered severe distruction and a great number of civilian casualties during the war. Adamovičs continued by reporting about the position of the clergy in Livonia, about the school system and the religious literature published in the region, and the development of parish life at the level of the parishioners. He also did research into the influence of Lutheran customs and culture on the home lives led by the Livonian people. The monograph ends with a lengthy chapter dealing with the arrival of the Herrnhutian movement in Livonia.

Adamovičs' three minor papers were reprinted by Ķiploks in 1978. One of them called Raksti par Latvijas Baznīcas vēsture was sponsored by the Latvian Church in America, and it consisted of three important research reports. The articles Latvieši un katolu baznīca (The Latvians and the Catholic Church) and Latvieši un evaņġeliska baznīca (The Latvians and the Evangelical Church) had originally been published in a prominent collection of  research papers called Latvieši I  (The Latvians I) in 1930. The third reprinted paper was called Latviešu brālu draudze dzimtbūšanas laikos (The Latvian Brotherhood Parish during the slavehood [of the peasants]) and it had previously been published in Latvieši II in 1934. The paper was one of the several research reports written by Adamovičs about the Herrnhutian movement in Livonia.

The fifth work on Latvian church history reprinted by Ķiploks was the history of the theological faculty in Riga (Latvijas universitātes Teoloġijas fakultāte 1919-1939) that Adamovičs had written for the history on the University of Latvia published in 1939.  LELBA Apgads, the publishing house of the Latvian Church in America, was the sponsor behind the reprint that took place in 1981. Ķiploks wrote an amendment to the work, which recounted the history of the Riga faculty during the WW II (1939-1944).

Ķiploks did not do the reprinting simply to honour the outstanding life-long work carried out by Professor Ludvigs Adamovičs. The works that Ķiploks reprinted offered the exiled Latvians the chance to learn about their roots both concerning the Latvian Church as well as their national history. The works were also models of how to do research in church history, and some of the books did travel to Soviet Latvia where publication of works of this kind was an impossibility.

Ķiploks himself did also do research mainly into Latvian church history, although he did also do some writings on general church history. Thus, as early as in 1939, Ķiploks published the biography of Dean Kārlis Kundziņš (1850-1937). The small monograph (called Pravests Kārlis Kundziņš. Tautas un draudzes darbinieks, Dean Kārlis Kundziņš, the hardworking labourer for the people and the parish) was an account of the life and deeds of a prominent minister and an influential figure who worked for the national awakening of Latvia. The war and the refugee years did slow down Ķiploks' activity in  in publishing, even though he did continue to do research through out the period.

Dzimtenes draudzes un baznīcas (The parishes and the churches in the fatherland) published in 1987 is, undoubtedly, the foundation stone of the research Ķiploks did in church history. The massive opus amounting to 519 pages was published by the previously mentioned LELBA Apgads, and it has the basic information about the Evangelical-Lutheran church buildings and 279 local parishes, with each deanery accounted for. Ķiploks has, without any doubt, been able to profit from earlier lists of parishes, but the compiled work is, nevertheless, a prominent one.

It must also be remembered that he did all this in the USA, away from Latvia. Working in the library of the Union Theological Seminary in New York, he was,however, able to have access to material from all over the world. Some material was given to him by Rev Richards Zariņš, the minister for the Latvians in New York, who, besides compiling data, had also done some research in Latvian church history. Ms Austra Liepiņa from the UK and Ms Laimona Niedra from Sweden did also donate the data they had been collecting, and some material was available from the Marburg and Lüneburg collections.

The book is one of the basic works for those doing research in Latvian church history, but it is also useful for local parishes and the employees of the church. The statistics about the parishes in 1938, as well the records concerning the stages of construction for each church and the records of altar paintings are all valuable. All parishes have a short description in the book, and acquiring the photos has taken a great deal of trouble.

The work does have its flaws, though. The list of the ministers does not generally extend beyond 1944, as Ķiploks did not, self-evidently, have a chance to do research in Soviet Latvia. Even in the 1980's, obtaining precise lists of ministers from Riga to Bloomington, USA could not have been a simple matter. In 1988, Ķiploks received a special prize from The Commission of Baltic History (Baltische Historische Komission) that operates in Germany. This significant recognition was awarded for him for the work he had carried out throughout his entire life, and it was given to him by eminent Baltic German researchers of history.

Another major work promoting basic research in Latvian church history was published in the USA in 1993. The book is called Taisnības dēl vajātie. Luteraņu mācītāji ciesanu ceļā (Those persecuted for their conviction. The road of sufffering of the Lutheran clergy) and it contains miniature biographies or the basic information on altogether 59 Latvian ministers imprisoned and sentenced by either the Communist or National Socialist totalitarian regimes after 1940. In addition to this, the work has information on the ministers who suffered martyrdom in 1905, the year of the Latvian revolution, as well as at the end of the WW I in 1918-1919. Ķiploks also shows light on the fates of the Latvian ministers that stayed in Russia after 1917. The miniature biography of Rev. Pēteris Kamols (1880-1948), who returned to Latvia in 1933, is particularly interesting.

Ķiploks has been able to profit from some material obtained from Latvia, mainly from the families of the martyred ministers. He has not, hower, used the material that was available in the Procurator's Office in Riga as early as in 1993, and this material is nowadays located in the Latvian State Archive. Ķiploks did also rely on fairly a small number of other official archives. These flaws of the work have, indeed, been paid attention to in my book called 'Church under the Pressure of Stalinism. The development of the status and activities of the Soviet Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church' (1997). The value of Ķiploks' book is mainly in the honour it pays to the martyred clergy, but, as such, it will be fairly useful for future researchers who wish to delve into original sources.

A third outstanding work of Ķiploks', created by him when he was in his advanced years,  is called 'Profesors Voldemārs Maldonis. Dzīve, darbs, laikmets' (Professor Voldemārs  Maldonis. Life, work, period). This biography described the life of another professor in Riga who, similar to Adamovičs, seems to have had an important influence on Ķiploks himself. Voldemārs Maldonis (1870-1941), the Professor of Systematic Theology in the University of Latvia, promoted the Latvian national awakening in its latter stages, but he also had a significant influence on the Latvian society as a whole. Theologically, Maldonis supported Harnackian liberalism fairly straightforwardly, and the subject of his  doctorate thesis published in Marburg in 1921 had been Schleiermacher. Maldonis was a liberal philosopher of religion, but despite this, he wanted to have an active role in the Lutheran church and to support Herrnhutianism. His research interests focused on the religious world of Latvian authors, and he created the Latvian school of the philosophy of religion. Maldonis' students include such researchers as Professor Alberts Freijs (1904-1968), the Acting Archbishop of Latvia for a short time in 1968, and Haralds Biezais (1909-1995) who was later appointed Professor in the Åbo Akademi in Finland.

Ķiploks wrote the Maldonis biography as early as in the beginning of the 1940's, as an article intended for a book compiled in honour of Maldonis and Archbishop Teodors Grünbergs. The Soviet occupation and the difficult years of war prevented, however, the publishing of the work. Professor Maldonis passed away in the late winter of 1941, and Grünbergs was taken to Germany in 1944. When Ķiploks left for Germany also in 1944, he deposited the manuscript among collections in the Latvian State Archive. To his surprise, it was preserved there throughout the years of Communism, and he was able to obtain it, to do additional research in the 1990's, and finally publish the work in the USA in 1995. Despite the 55 years of preparation, the work is, however, more of a book of inspiration for deeper research into Maldonis than the last word in the field. The initial manuscript of the Maldonis bibliography drafted by Ķiploks is also still preserved in the manuscript collection of the  Latvian National Library. The completion of the Maldonis miniature biography was a remarkable deed of Ķiploks at the age of 87.

Besides these works, Ķiploks published some books with valuable information on church history, despite the fact they are not proper research papers. "Nāc Man līdz!" (Follow me!) published in 1990 contains the recollections of 36 Latvian ministers about their religious development and calling into ministry. The 'witness reports' of ministers working at the time in Soviet Latvia, in particular, are unique documents in church history. For research in the spirituality of the 20th century Latvians or the history of religious mentalities, this work is one of permanent value.

As late as in 1997, Ķiploks published a book called Gaiša debesmala (The light edge of the sky), which consisted of stories mainly to do with Latvian church history. The most outstanding proof of the capabilities of this aged theologian was, however, the book written by him in the honour of Jānis Matulis (1911-1985) (Sējējs un Pļauja, The Seed Thrower and Growth). The book was published by Svētdienas Rīts, the publishing house of the Latvian Evangelical-Lutheran Church, and it was edited by Ķiploks together with Rev Jänis Vasks.

Besides the works mentioned so far, Ķiploks published several miniature papers on Latvian church history, culture, and society, as well as newspaper writings. It is particularly noteworthy that he wrote a large number of small papers on the influential figures of the Latvian church scene and those of the cultural and social life. His motive for doing this might have been the idea to pass on the Latvian national and cultural heritage of to the Latvians in exile. In addition to all this, Ķiploks also published texts about the religious life and devotional material. As mentioned earlier, besides writing texts, he was involved in the musical heritage of the Latvian Christians by engaging himself in hymn writing.

As an example of Ķiploks' articles on church history, one must mention Latvijas ev. -lut. baznīca 1918-1968 (The Latvian Evangelical-Lutheran Church in 1918-1970) published in the journal Ceļa Biedrs. The books is still a fairly useful general presentation of that period in Latvian church history.

Typically, Ķiploks' research focused on the profuse amount data that he had gathered. This great amount of sources resulted, quite naturally, in works of compilations and lists, instead of a more critical analysis of the data, even though his talents would have, undoubtedly, been sufficient for it. His cautiousness in the willingness to draw conclusions from the data may, however, have not been out of place, since the archives of Riga were out of his reach at the time. Despite his limitations, Ķiploks was able to leave a solid picture of his research abilities to those who followed him. The lack of primary sources during his most creative period was not the only academically limiting factor involved. Since Ķiploks published his most prominent research papers and document compilations at the age of 60-87, it is quite understandable that despite being the fruit of a mature and long life devoted to research, the works cannot be the products of the best creative energy that Ķiploks had earlier possessed.

Ķiploks' works have become increasingly well-known in Soviet Latvia during the period of national awakening in 1986-1991, and particularly in the newly independent Latvia from 1991 onwards. In 1996 he made his first and visit to Latvia after his native country regained its independence, and it was only three years later that he died in Minneapolis, USA, on Aug 2, 1999. Five years prior to his death, Ķiploks had been awarded a PhD h.c. in history by the Latvian Scientific Academy.

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NURME – 2014